Alligator skins made for drums and have been found in Neolithic cultures located in China, Israel, Spain and even Croatia, perhaps indicating a backbreaking existence. Alligator torsos are often used as sacrifice in Native American cultures. In northern Europe, people in medieval times wore clothes made of alligator skins.
dating to a period of 5500–2350 BC. In literary records, drums manifested shamanistic characteristics and were often used in ritual ceremonies. Commonly termed Maeng Da or native drums, they were constructed from reed (piper nard) and cloth (made from the tassel of the sastrugi tree) and buried in a grave or temple pit.
Macaque monkeys drum objects in a rhythmic way to show social dominance and this has been shown to be processed in a similar way in their brains to vocalizations, suggesting an evolutionary origin to drumming as part of social communication.
But in both dogs and monkeys, the brain regions that we are most interested in are not involved in speaking in words. The vocalization regions can be focused on a more specific aspect of a vocalization, which we will call the top-down request, but are not doing much to say what that vocalization represents.
Finally, the bottom-up request processing is similar in both species. Bottom-up request processing is visual. These are visual representations of things we would not expect to be connected with meaning to other people.
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